Mau In English

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Look up the German to English translation of mau in the PONS online dictionary. Includes free vocabulary trainer, verb tables and pronunciation function. Many translated example sentences containing "Mau" – English-German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Translation for 'mau' using the free German-English dictionary by LANGENSCHEIDT -– with examples, synonyms and pronunciation. Translation for 'mau' in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations. Translation for 'Mau-Mau' in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations.

Mau In English

Need to translate "mau" from German? Here are 2 possible meanings. English Translation. poor. More meanings for mau. mau translate: poor. Learn more in the Cambridge German-English Dictionary. Translations in context of "mau" in English-German from Reverso Context: And so I finish by giving you this typical blessing in Hawaiian: E pili mau na pomaika'i.

Mau In English Video

getting to CHAMPION DIVISION in 6 hours.. (world record) Mau In English mau translate: poor. Learn more in the Cambridge German-English Dictionary. Translations in context of "mau" in English-German from Reverso Context: And so I finish by giving you this typical blessing in Hawaiian: E pili mau na pomaika'i. Translations in context of "Mau Mau Kartenspiel" in German-English from Reverso Context. English Translation of “mau” | The official Collins German-English Dictionary online. Over English translations of German words and phrases. Need to translate "mau" from German? Here are 2 possible meanings. English Translation. poor. More meanings for mau. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fresh from the success of the Northern Expedition against the warlords, Chiang turned on the Communists, who by now numbered in the tens of thousands across China. As per the records on official webpage of the district, in A. The result, compounded in some areas by drought and in others by floods, was that rural peasants were Mau In English with little food for themselves and many millions starved to death in the Great Chinese Famine. But Book Of Ra Online Geld died in Foreign Affairs. Los Angeles Slot Machine Games Free To Play. Archived from the original on June 1, Changsha's governor fled, leaving the city in Roulette Computer control. December 25,

For the women's movement, even the game of cricket represented an act of defiance inviting official harassment. The day after his funeral, his village was raided by New Zealand military police; they ransacked houses, including those of the Tamasese's mourning widow and children.

The Mau, who were fully committed to passive resistance, easily slipped through the jungle; the marines were slow because they were carrying too much weaponry and didn't know the bush like The Mau.

The Mau no longer trusted New Zealand police, and this fear only got worse after a year-old unarmed Samoan was shot and killed while running away from a marine, whose excuse he thought the boy was going to throw a stone was accepted as an adequate defence and no charges were laid.

A truce was declared on 12 March , after another child was killed by New Zealand marines who were now suffering heat exhaustion and tropical infections.

The male Mau members returned to their homes, on the condition that they retain their right to engage in non-cooperation.

Meanwhile, Nelson and other exiled leaders continued to lobby the New Zealand Government and communicate their progress to the Mau. In , news of the growing resistance to the British rule of India reached many Samoan villages.

The Mau movement had not gone unnoticed by the population of New Zealand, and the treatment of Samoans at the hands of the administration had become a contentious issue in some New Zealand electorates during the election.

Under the new Government, there was slow movement towards greater involvement of Samoans in the administration of their own country.

The apology covered the influenza epidemic of , the shooting of unarmed Mau protesters by New Zealand police in and the banishing of matai chiefs from their homes.

The Mau movement was an indigenous opposition to the U. It featured the signing of petitions in efforts to enact political transformation vis-a-vis American colonial government, and included effort to resist taxation of copra.

It emerged as a result of fluctuating prices of copra and represented an open affront to the American Navy and its patterns of treatment of the indigenous Samoan people and failure to respect Samoan customs, conceptions of self-government and the Samoan way of life.

This movement received a lot of press in the United States, both favourable and unfavourable. The leader of the movement, Samuel Ripley of Leone, Tutuila, was in effect exiled from American Samoa, when he was barred by the US Navy authorities from disembarking from a ship returning to Pagopago from California, and he was never allowed to return to his homeland.

He eventually became the mayor of Richmond, California. Its influence however continued to be felt. A Samoan hip hop group that was founded in by Kosmo, M.

Kha Tha Feelstyle Orator and D. Rockit V. The Mau was named for the Mau movement. The Mau has now reformed as the group Rough Opinion.

The group still carries the message of the Mau movement as their theme. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the Kenyan guerrilla movement, see Mau Mau Uprising. New Zealand in Samoa. New Zealand history online. Retrieved 1 September Retrieved 21 February Read Books.

Retrieved 21 February — via Google Books. New Zealand History Online. Meleisea, Penelope Schoeffel. University of the South Pacific.

Heritage et al. Mau: Samoa's Struggle for Freedom. New Zealand: Pasifika Press. BBC News. Retrieved 12 May New Zealand Herald News.

Tax resistance. Conscientious objection to military taxation List of historical acts of tax resistance Tax resistance in the United States List of tax resisters.

Tuchin Revolt Harelle Peasants' Revolt. Cornish Rebellion of At that time, labourer and artisans originally belonging to Iran, Afghanistan and Turkey, who had come with Mughal army settled here permanently.

These artisans integrated into the society over a period of time but they kept their art alive and despite a gradual demise of the handloom industry in the eastern Uttar Pradesh, the saree industry of Mau still remains the last bastion of handicraft in the area otherwise an industrially thriving region till the end of last century.

It is also believed that one of Akbar's daughter, Jahanara Begum had also settled in that area where she built a mosque. The original structure of the mosque is not surviving anymore but place is known as Shahi Qatra and there is a Shahi Mosque in that locality reminding of its past glory.

During the Indian freedom struggle, the people of Mau had given full support to the movement, and Mahatma Gandhi had also made a visit to Doharighat region of the district in In , Azamgarh was made independent district, Mau region was a part of it until when the current area of Mau district was carved out of Azamgarh on 19 November to make Mau a separate district in which the then Union Minister of State of India Power Kalpnath Rai played a pivotal role.

He is also credited to start an array of developmental activities in the city including new Railway Station and a stadium.

Mau is industrial town of eastern UP. After demise of textile industry of Banares and Mubarakpur, Mau stands as one of the last bastion of textile hubs of UP.

There are speculations that this huge industry will benefit if GI is awarded to Mau as well as if clusters of powerlooms, resembling modern industry are encouraged.

But as of date only one cluster has been identified as Palki Industries Pvt. As per the census of , Mau had a population of , of which , are males while , are females.

Population of Children with age of is which is Literacy rate of Mau city is Male literacy is around Mau is a Nagar Palika Parishad city and it's divided into 36 wards for which elections are held every 5 years.

In June , Tan led his troops into Changsha, and Zhang fled. In the subsequent reorganization of the provincial administration, Mao was appointed headmaster of the junior section of the First Normal School.

Now receiving a large income, he married Yang Kaihui in the winter of Mao set up a Changsha branch, also establishing a branch of the Socialist Youth Corps and a Cultural Book Society which opened a bookstore to propagate revolutionary literature throughout Hunan.

When the movement was successful in establishing provincial autonomy under a new warlord, Mao forgot his involvement.

The first session of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China was attended by 13 delegates, Mao included. After the authorities sent a police spy to the congress, the delegates moved to a boat on South Lake near Jiaxing , in Zhejiang, to escape detection.

Although Soviet and Comintern delegates attended, the first congress ignored Lenin's advice to accept a temporary alliance between the Communists and the "bourgeois democrats" who also advocated national revolution; instead they stuck to the orthodox Marxist belief that only the urban proletariat could lead a socialist revolution.

Mao was now party secretary for Hunan stationed in Changsha, and to build the party there he followed a variety of tactics. The successful and famous Anyuan coal mines strikes contrary to later Party historians depended on both "proletarian" and "bourgeois" strategies.

Liu Shaoqi and Li Lisan and Mao not only mobilised the miners, but formed schools and cooperatives and engaged local intellectuals, gentry, military officers, merchants, Red Gang dragon heads and even church clergy.

Mao claimed that he missed the July Second Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai because he lost the address.

Adopting Lenin's advice, the delegates agreed to an alliance with the "bourgeois democrats" of the KMT for the good of the "national revolution". Communist Party members joined the KMT, hoping to push its politics leftward.

Mao was a vocal anti-imperialist and in his writings he lambasted the governments of Japan, UK and US, describing the latter as "the most murderous of hangmen".

Supporting this position, Mao was elected to the Party Committee, taking up residence in Shanghai. In late , Mao returned to Shaoshan, perhaps to recuperate from an illness.

He found that the peasantry were increasingly restless and some had seized land from wealthy landowners to found communes. This convinced him of the revolutionary potential of the peasantry, an idea advocated by the KMT leftists but not the Communists.

Such uprisings angered senior KMT figures, who were themselves landowners, emphasizing the growing class and ideological divide within the revolutionary movement.

There, Mao played an active role in the discussions regarding the peasant issue, defending a set of "Regulations for the Repression of Local Bullies and Bad Gentry", which advocated the death penalty or life imprisonment for anyone found guilty of counter-revolutionary activity, arguing that in a revolutionary situation, "peaceful methods cannot suffice".

Mao led another group to put together a "Draft Resolution on the Land Question", which called for the confiscation of land belonging to "local bullies and bad gentry, corrupt officials, militarists and all counter-revolutionary elements in the villages".

He accepted that there was great variation in revolutionary enthusiasm across the country, and that a flexible policy of land redistribution was necessary.

Ultimately, his suggestions were only partially implemented. Fresh from the success of the Northern Expedition against the warlords, Chiang turned on the Communists, who by now numbered in the tens of thousands across China.

Chiang ignored the orders of the Wuhan-based left KMT government and marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by Communist militias.

As the Communists awaited Chiang's arrival, he loosed the White Terror , massacring with the aid of the Green Gang. A battalion led by General Zhu De was ordered to take the city of Nanchang on August 1, , in what became known as the Nanchang Uprising.

They were initially successful, but were forced into retreat after five days, marching south to Shantou , and from there they were driven into the wilderness of Fujian.

On the eve of the attack, Mao composed a poem—the earliest of his to survive—titled "Changsha". Mao's army made it to Changsha, but could not take it; by September 15, he accepted defeat and with survivors marched east to the Jinggang Mountains of Jiangxi.

Chang and Halliday report a view sent to Moscow by the secretary of the Soviet Consulate in Changsha that the retreat was "the most despicable treachery and cowardice.

The CPC Central Committee, hiding in Shanghai, expelled Mao from their ranks and from the Hunan Provincial Committee, as punishment for his "military opportunism", for his focus on rural activity, and for being too lenient with "bad gentry".

They nevertheless adopted three policies he had long championed: the immediate formation of Workers' councils , the confiscation of all land without exemption, and the rejection of the KMT.

Mao's response was to ignore them. He ensured that no massacres took place in the region, and pursued a more lenient approach than that advocated by the Central Committee.

In doing so, he molded his men into a disciplined, efficient fighting force. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another.

When the enemy advances, we retreat. When the enemy rests, we harass him. When the enemy avoids a battle, we attack. When the enemy retreats, we advance.

Mao's advice in combating the Kuomintang, [95] [96]. In spring , the Central Committee ordered Mao's troops to southern Hunan, hoping to spark peasant uprisings.

Mao was skeptical, but complied. They reached Hunan, where they were attacked by the KMT and fled after heavy losses.

Meanwhile, KMT troops had invaded Jinggangshan, leaving them without a base. They were initially successful, but the KMT counter-attacked, and pushed the CPC back; over the next few weeks, they fought an entrenched guerrilla war in the mountains.

Contrastingly, Zhu complied, and led his armies away. Mao's troops fended the KMT off for 25 days while he left the camp at night to find reinforcements.

He reunited with the decimated Zhu's army, and together they returned to Jinggangshan and retook the base.

In the mountainous area they were unable to grow enough crops to feed everyone, leading to food shortages throughout the winter.

In January , Mao and Zhu evacuated the base with 2, men and a further provided by Peng, and took their armies south, to the area around Tonggu and Xinfeng in Jiangxi.

Mao replied that while he concurred with Li's theoretical position, he would not disband his army nor abandon his base. In this, they disagreed with the official line of the Soviet government and Comintern.

Officials in Moscow desired greater control over the CPC and removed Li from power by calling him to Russia for an inquest into his errors.

Mao disagreed with the new leadership, believing they grasped little of the Chinese situation, and he soon emerged as their key rival.

In December, they tried to overthrow Mao, resulting in the Futian incident , during which Mao's loyalists tortured many and executed between and dissenters.

Meanwhile, Mao recovered from tuberculosis. The KMT armies adopted a policy of encirclement and annihilation of the Red armies. Outnumbered, Mao responded with guerrilla tactics influenced by the works of ancient military strategists like Sun Tzu , but Zhou and the new leadership followed a policy of open confrontation and conventional warfare.

In doing so, the Red Army successfully defeated the first and second encirclements. He too faced setbacks and retreated to deal with the further Japanese incursions into China.

In November he announced the start of a "land verification project" which was expanded in June He also orchestrated education programs and implemented measures to increase female political participation.

Trapped inside, morale among the Red Army dropped as food and medicine became scarce. The leadership decided to evacuate. In order to make the escape, many of the wounded and the ill, as well as women and children, were left behind, defended by a group of guerrilla fighters whom the KMT massacred.

Temporarily resting in the city, they held a conference ; here, Mao was elected to a position of leadership, becoming Chairman of the Politburo , and de facto leader of both Party and Red Army, in part because his candidacy was supported by Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.

Insisting that they operate as a guerrilla force, he laid out a destination: the Shenshi Soviet in Shaanxi , Northern China, from where the Communists could focus on fighting the Japanese.

Mao believed that in focusing on the anti-imperialist struggle, the Communists would earn the trust of the Chinese people, who in turn would renounce the KMT.

From Zunyi, Mao led his troops to Loushan Pass , where they faced armed opposition but successfully crossed the river. Chiang flew into the area to lead his armies against Mao, but the Communists outmanoeuvred him and crossed the Jinsha River.

Zhang and Mao disagreed over what to do; the latter wished to proceed to Shaanxi, while Zhang wanted to retreat east to Tibet or Sikkim , far from the KMT threat.

It was agreed that they would go their separate ways, with Zhu De joining Zhang. In November , he was named chairman of the Military Commission.

From this point onward, Mao was the Communist Party's undisputed leader, even though he would not become party chairman until Mao's troops arrived at the Yan'an Soviet during October and settled in Pao An, until spring While there, they developed links with local communities, redistributed and farmed the land, offered medical treatment, and began literacy programs.

She traveled to Moscow for medical treatment; Mao proceeded to divorce her and marry an actress, Jiang Qing. The Japanese had taken both Shanghai and Nanking Nanjing —resulting in the Nanking Massacre , an atrocity Mao never spoke of all his life—and was pushing the Kuomintang government inland to Chungking.

It was a military success that resulted in the death of 20, Japanese, the disruption of railways and the loss of a coal mine. Most of the Americans were favourably impressed.

United States fliers shot down over North China Likewise, the Soviet Union gave quasi-covert support to Mao by their occupation of north east China, which allowed the PLA to move in en masse and take large supplies of arms left by the Japanese's Kwantung Army.

In , under direct orders from Mao, the People's Liberation Army starved out the Kuomintang forces occupying the city of Changchun.

At least , civilians are believed to have perished during the siege , which lasted from June until October. Hiroshima took nine seconds; Changchun took five months.

Mao initiated the talks which focused on the political and economic revolution in China, foreign policy, railways, naval bases, and Soviet economic and technical aid.

The resulting treaty reflected Stalin's dominance and his willingness to help Mao. Mao pushed the Party to organize campaigns to reform society and extend control.

These campaigns were given urgency in October , when Mao made the decision to send the People's Volunteer Army , a special unit of the People's Liberation Army , into the Korean War and fight as well as to reinforce the armed forces of North Korea, the Korean People's Army , which had been in full retreat.

The United States placed a trade embargo on the People's Republic as a result of its involvement in the Korean War , lasting until Richard Nixon improvements of relations.

At least thousand Chinese troops died during the war. Mao directed operations to the minutest detail. Chinese troops in Korea were under the overall command of then newly installed Premier Zhou Enlai , with General Peng Dehuai as field commander and political commissar.

During the land reform campaigns , large numbers of landlords and rich peasants were beaten to death at mass meetings organised by the Communist Party as land was taken from them and given to poorer peasants, which significantly reduced economic inequality.

State department estimated as many as a million were killed in the land reform, and , killed in the counter-revolutionary campaign. Mao himself claimed that a total of , people were killed in attacks on "counter-revolutionaries" during the years — The Mao government is generally credited with eradicating both consumption and production of opium during the s using unrestrained repression and social reform.

Remaining opium production shifted south of the Chinese border into the Golden Triangle region. Whereas the three-anti campaign was a focused purge of government, industrial and party officials, the five-anti campaign set its sights slightly broader, targeting capitalist elements in general.

Mao insisted that minor offenders be criticised and reformed or sent to labour camps, "while the worst among them should be shot". These campaigns took several hundred thousand additional lives, the vast majority via suicide.

In Shanghai, suicide by jumping from tall buildings became so commonplace that residents avoided walking on the pavement near skyscrapers for fear that suicides might land on them.

For example, in his biography of Mao, Philip Short notes that in the Yan'an Rectification Movement , Mao gave explicit instructions that "no cadre is to be killed", but in practice allowed security chief Kang Sheng to drive opponents to suicide and that "this pattern was repeated throughout his leadership of the People's Republic".

Following the consolidation of power, Mao launched the First Five-Year Plan — , which aimed to end Chinese dependence upon agriculture in order to become a world power.

With the Soviet Union 's assistance, new industrial plants were built and agricultural production eventually fell [ clarification needed ] to a point where industry was beginning to produce enough capital that China no longer needed the USSR's support.

Mao also launched a phase of rapid collectivization. The CPC introduced price controls as well as a Chinese character simplification aimed at increasing literacy.

Large-scale industrialization projects were also undertaken. Programs pursued during this time include the Hundred Flowers Campaign , in which Mao indicated his supposed willingness to consider different opinions about how China should be governed.

Given the freedom to express themselves, liberal and intellectual Chinese began opposing the Communist Party and questioning its leadership.

This was initially tolerated and encouraged. After a few months, however, Mao's government reversed its policy and persecuted those who had criticised the party, totaling perhaps ,, [] as well as those who were merely alleged to have been critical, in what is called the Anti-Rightist Movement.

Authors such as Jung Chang have alleged that the Hundred Flowers Campaign was merely a ruse to root out "dangerous" thinking. Li Zhisui, Mao's physician, suggested that Mao had initially seen the policy as a way of weakening opposition to him within the party and that he was surprised by the extent of criticism and the fact that it came to be directed at his own leadership.

The Hundred Flowers movement led to the condemnation, silencing, and death of many citizens, also linked to Mao's Anti-Rightist Movement, resulting in deaths possibly in the millions.

In January , Mao launched the second Five-Year Plan , known as the Great Leap Forward , a plan intended to turn China from an agrarian nation to an industrialized one [] and as an alternative model for economic growth to the Soviet model focusing on heavy industry that was advocated by others in the party.

Under this economic program, the relatively small agricultural collectives that had been formed to date were rapidly merged into far larger people's communes , and many of the peasants were ordered to work on massive infrastructure projects and on the production of iron and steel.

Some private food production was banned, and livestock and farm implements were brought under collective ownership. Under the Great Leap Forward, Mao and other party leaders ordered the implementation of a variety of unproven and unscientific new agricultural techniques by the new communes.

In an effort to win favour with their superiors and avoid being purged, each layer in the party hierarchy exaggerated the amount of grain produced under them.

Based upon the fabricated success, party cadres were ordered to requisition a disproportionately high amount of that fictitious harvest for state use, primarily for use in the cities and urban areas but also for export.

The result, compounded in some areas by drought and in others by floods, was that rural peasants were left with little food for themselves and many millions starved to death in the Great Chinese Famine.

China's population suffered from the Great Famine during the late 20th century. This came as a result of the lack of food production and distribution to the population of China.

The people of urban areas in China were given food stamps each month, but the people of rural areas were expected to grow their own crops and give some of the crops back to the government.

The deaths in the rural parts of China out ranked the ones in the Urban cities. Also, the government of China continued to export food to other countries during the Great Famine; this food could have been used to feed the starving citizens.

These factors led to the catastrophic death of about 52 million citizens. The extent of Mao's knowledge of the severity of the situation has been disputed.

Mao's physician believed that he may have been unaware of the extent of the famine, partly due to a reluctance to criticise his policies, and the willingness of his staff to exaggerate or outright fake reports regarding food production.

Hong Kong-based historian Frank Dikötter , [] challenged the notion that Mao did not know about the famine throughout the country until it was too late:.

The idea that the state mistakenly took too much grain from the countryside because it assumed that the harvest was much larger than it was is largely a myth—at most partially true for the autumn of only.

In most cases the party knew very well that it was starving its own people to death. At a secret meeting in the Jinjiang Hotel in Shanghai dated March 25, , Mao specifically ordered the party to procure up to one third of all the grain, much more than had ever been the case.

At the meeting he announced that "To distribute resources evenly will only ruin the Great Leap Forward. When there is not enough to eat, people starve to death.

It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill. Professor Emeritus Thomas P.

Bernstein of Columbia University offered his view on Mao's statement on starvation in the March 25, , meeting:. Some scholars believe that this shows Mao's readiness to accept mass death on an immense scale.

My own view is that this is an instance of Mao's use of hyperbole, another being his casual acceptance of death of half the population during a nuclear war.

In other contexts, Mao did not in fact accept mass death. Zhou's Chronology shows that in October , Mao expressed real concern that 40, people in Yunnan had starved to death p.

Shortly after the March 25 meeting, he worried about Bernstein also discussed Mao's change of attitudes during different phases of the Great Leap Forward:.

In late autumn , Mao Zedong strongly condemned widespread practices of the Great Leap Forward GLF such as subjecting peasants to exhausting labour without adequate food and rest, which had resulted in epidemics, starvation and deaths.

At that time Mao explicitly recognized that anti-rightist pressures on officialdom were a major cause of "production at the expense of livelihood.

After the July clash at Lushan with Peng Dehuai , Mao revived the GLF in the context of a new, extremely harsh anti-rightist campaign, which he relentlessly promoted into the spring of together with the radical policies that he previously condemned.

Not until spring did Mao again express concern about abnormal deaths and other abuses, but he failed to apply the pressure needed to stop them.

Given what he had already learned about the costs to the peasants of GLF extremism, the Chairman should have known that the revival of GLF radicalism would exact a similar or even bigger price.

Instead, he wilfully ignored the lessons of the first radical phase for the sake of achieving extreme ideological and developmental goals. In Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine , Jasper Becker notes that Mao was dismissive of reports he received of food shortages in the countryside and refused to change course, believing that peasants were lying and that rightists and kulaks were hoarding grain.

He refused to open state granaries, [] and instead launched a series of "anti-grain concealment" drives that resulted in numerous purges and suicides.

Many peasants accused of hiding food were tortured and beaten to death. Whatever the cause of the disaster, Mao lost esteem among many of the top party cadres.

He was eventually forced to abandon the policy in , and he lost political power to moderate party leaders such as Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping.

Mao, however, supported by national propaganda, claimed that he was only partly to blame for the famine. As a result, Mao was forced to step down as President of the Communist Party of China on April 27, , but was able to remain in his top position as Chairman of the Communist Party, with the Presidency of the party and the state transferred to Liu Shaoqi.

The Great Leap Forward was a tragedy for the vast majority of the Chinese. Although the steel quotas were officially reached, almost all of the supposed steel made in the countryside was iron, as it had been made from assorted scrap metal in home-made furnaces with no reliable source of fuel such as coal.

This meant that proper smelting conditions could not be achieved. We took all the furniture, pots, and pans we had in our house, and all our neighbours did likewise.

We put everything in a big fire and melted down all the metal. The worst of the famine was steered towards enemies of the state.

The most vulnerable section of China's population, around five per cent, were those whom Mao called ' enemies of the people '.

Anyone who had in previous campaigns of repression been labeled a 'black element' was given the lowest priority in the allocation of food.

Landlords, rich peasants, former members of the nationalist regime, religious leaders, rightists, counter-revolutionaries and the families of such individuals died in the greatest numbers.

Following Peng's criticism of the Great Leap Forward, Mao orchestrated a purge of Peng and his supporters, stifling criticism of the Great Leap policies.

Senior officials who reported the truth of the famine to Mao were branded as "right opportunists. Years later the CPC would conclude that as many as six million people were wrongly punished in the campaign.

The number of deaths by starvation during the Great Leap Forward is deeply controversial. Until the mids, when official census figures were finally published by the Chinese Government, little was known about the scale of the disaster in the Chinese countryside, as the handful of Western observers allowed access during this time had been restricted to model villages where they were deceived into believing that the Great Leap Forward had been a great success.

There was also an assumption that the flow of individual reports of starvation that had been reaching the West, primarily through Hong Kong and Taiwan, must have been localised or exaggerated as China was continuing to claim record harvests and was a net exporter of grain through the period.

Because Mao wanted to pay back early to the Soviets debts totalling 1. Censuses were carried out in China in , and The first attempt to analyse this data to estimate the number of famine deaths was carried out by American demographer Dr.

Judith Banister and published in Given the lengthy gaps between the censuses and doubts over the reliability of the data, an accurate figure is difficult to ascertain.

Nevertheless, Banister concluded that the official data implied that around 15 million excess deaths incurred in China during —61, and that based on her modelling of Chinese demographics during the period and taking account of assumed under-reporting during the famine years, the figure was around 30 million.

The official statistic is 20 million deaths, as given by Hu Yaobang. On the international front, the period was dominated by the further isolation of China.

The Sino-Soviet split resulted in Nikita Khrushchev 's withdrawal of all Soviet technical experts and aid from the country.

The split concerned the leadership of world communism. The USSR had a network of Communist parties it supported; China now created its own rival network to battle it out for local control of the left in numerous countries.

Lüthi argues:. The split helped to determine the framework of the Second Cold War in general, and influenced the course of the Second Vietnam War in particular.

The split resulted from Nikita Khrushchev 's more moderate Soviet leadership after the death of Stalin in March Only Albania openly sided with China, thereby forming an alliance between the two countries which would last until after Mao's death in Warned that the Soviets had nuclear weapons, Mao minimized the threat.

Becker says that "Mao believed that the bomb was a 'paper tiger', declaring to Khrushchev that it would not matter if China lost million people in a nuclear war: the other half of the population would survive to ensure victory".

Stalin had established himself as the successor of "correct" Marxist thought well before Mao controlled the Communist Party of China , and therefore Mao never challenged the suitability of any Stalinist doctrine at least while Stalin was alive.

Upon the death of Stalin, Mao believed perhaps because of seniority that the leadership of Marxist doctrine would fall to him.

The resulting tension between Khrushchev at the head of a politically and militarily superior government , and Mao believing he had a superior understanding of Marxist ideology eroded the previous patron-client relationship between the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the CPC.

Partly surrounded by hostile American military bases in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan , China was now confronted with a new threat from the Soviet Union north and west.

Both the internal crisis and the external threat called for extraordinary statesmanship from Mao, but as China entered the new decade the statesmen of China were in hostile confrontation with each other.

During the early s, Mao became concerned with the nature of post China. He saw that the revolution and Great Leap Forward had replaced the old ruling elite with a new one.

He was concerned that those in power were becoming estranged from the people they were to serve. Mao believed that a revolution of culture would unseat and unsettle the "ruling class" and keep China in a state of "perpetual revolution" that, theoretically, would serve the interests of the majority, rather than a tiny and privileged elite.

They attempted to marginalise Mao by taking control of economic policy and asserting themselves politically as well. Some scholars, such as Mobo Gao, claim the case for this is overstated.

Believing that certain liberal bourgeois elements of society continued to threaten the socialist framework, groups of young people known as the Red Guards struggled against authorities at all levels of society and even set up their own tribunals.

Chaos reigned in much of the nation, and millions were persecuted. During the Cultural Revolution, nearly all of the schools and universities in China were closed, and the young intellectuals living in cities were ordered to the countryside to be "re-educated" by the peasants, where they performed hard manual labour and other work.

The Cultural Revolution led to the destruction of much of China's traditional cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese citizens, as well as the creation of general economic and social chaos in the country.

It is estimated that hundreds of thousands of people, perhaps millions, perished in the violence of the Cultural Revolution.

When Mao was informed of such losses, particularly that people had been driven to suicide, he is alleged to have commented: "People who try to commit suicide—don't attempt to save them!

China is such a populous nation, it is not as if we cannot do without a few people. Said Xie Fuzhi , national police chief: "Don't say it is wrong of them to beat up bad persons: if in anger they beat someone to death, then so be it.

It was during this period that Mao chose Lin Biao , who seemed to echo all of Mao's ideas, to become his successor.

Lin was later officially named as Mao's successor. By , however, a divide between the two men had become apparent. Official history in China states that Lin was planning a military coup or an assassination attempt on Mao.

Lin Biao died on September 13, in a plane crash over the air space of Mongolia, presumably as he fled China, probably anticipating his arrest.

At this time, Mao lost trust in many of the top CPC figures. The highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt.

Despite being considered a feminist figure by some and a supporter of women's rights, documents released by the US Department of State in show that Mao declared women to be a "nonsense" in , in conversation with Kissinger, joking that "China is a very poor country.

We don't have much. What we have in excess is women Let them go to your place. They will create disasters. That way you can lessen our burdens.

In , Mao declared the Cultural Revolution to be over, although various historians in and outside of China mark the end of the Cultural Revolution—as a whole or in part—in , following Mao's death and the arrest of the Gang of Four.

Mao remained passive as various factions within the Communist Party mobilised for the power struggle anticipated after his death.

While one-tenth of Chinese people—an estimated million—did suffer during the period, [] some scholars, such as Lee Feigon and Mobo Gao, claim there were many great advances, and in some sectors the Chinese economy continued to outperform the West.

During the Cultural Revolution, China detonated its first H-Bomb in , launched the Dong Fang Hong satellite on January 30, , commissioned its first nuclear submarines and made various advances in science and technology.

Healthcare was free, and living standards in the countryside continued to improve. Estimates of the death toll during the Cultural Revolution, including civilians and Red Guards, vary greatly.

An estimate of around , deaths is a widely accepted minimum figure, according to Maurice Meisner. During his leadership, Mao traveled outside China on only two occasions, both state visits to the Soviet Union.

When Mao stepped down as head of state on April 27, , further diplomatic state visits and travels abroad were undertaken by president Liu Shaoqi rather than Mao personally.

Happy Familiesreally, in the nursery. See examples translated by Mau Text Twist Deutsch with alignment. Register Login. Tell us about this example sentence:. See examples containing Mau-Mau 22 examples Noble Casino Meinungen alignment. German Ich bin dankbar für die Tatsache, dass ich einen Mentor wie Mau hatte, der mir beibrachte, wie man navigiert. A good farmer, no Mau Mau. The exhibition architecture was designed by Bruce Mau. Es ist wie Mau-Mau im Kinderzimmer. Mau Mau Mau Mau. Mau is a palu, a navigator Sven Bomwollen Online Spielen Ohne Download. Maubere oder Mau Bere ist Sizzling Hot Gra Online Za Darmo weitverbreiteter männlicher Vorname unter den Mambai.

Literacy rate of Mau city is Male literacy is around Mau is a Nagar Palika Parishad city and it's divided into 36 wards for which elections are held every 5 years.

Mau Nagar Palika Parishad has total administration over 41, houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage.

It is also authorize to build roads within Nagar Palika Parishad limits and impose taxes on properties coming under its jurisdiction. There are Females for every Male and child sex ratio of girls is per boys in Mau, Which is above the national average of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about The municipality in Uttar Pradesh, India. For its namesake district, see Mau district. For other uses, see Mau disambiguation.

City in Uttar Pradesh, India. Religions in Mau [11] Religion Percent Muslims. Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 1 June Populated places in Mau district.

Azamgarh division topics. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Retrieved July 18, Washington Post. The New York Review of Books.

We Have the Answer". That's Online. Retrieved April 24, Syracuse, N. Anyuan: Mining China's Revolutionary Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press, II, M.

Sharpe, p. Quotations from Mao Zedong on War and Revolution. Columbia University. Retrieved November 12, Zhou Enlai: A Political Life. Retrieved March 12, Was Mao Really a Monster?

The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, Encyclopedia of China: History and Culture. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. North, "The Sino-Soviet Agreements of Retrieved November 28, July Strategic Studies Institute.

Princeton University Press. In Zhangzhuangcun, in the more thoroughly reformed north of the country, most "landlords" and "rich peasants" had lost all their land and often their lives or had fled.

All formerly landless workers had received land, which eliminated this category altogether. As a result, "middling peasants," who now accounted for 90 percent of the village population, owned Basic Books , Deaths in China Due to Communism.

Mao got this number from a report submitted by Xu Zirong, Deputy Public Security Minister, which stated , counter-revolutionaries were executed, 1,, were imprisoned, and another 1,, were "subjected to control.

Fairbank ; Roderick MacFarquhar The Cambridge history of China. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved August 23, Free Press, The China Quarterly.

Archived from the original PDF on July 29, Retrieved June 21, Archived from the original on June 27, Archived from the original on April 4, Retrieved May 4, March 5, Retrieved May 11, Cato Journal.

International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on August 9, Retrieved July 28, The Spectator. Retrieved January 15, June China Perspectives.

Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. The Independent. Retrieved September 20, Frank Dikötter". The China Journal. Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century.

Foreign Affairs. Lüthi Princeton UP. The Chinese. Oxford UP. Livelihood Issues. The Atlantic. National Review.

Archived from the original on August 8, The Australian. February 13, BBC News. Encyclopedia of Marxism. Retrieved October 6, Spence, Johnathan Archived from the original PDF on January 31, Random House.

Nicholas Griffin Simon and Schuster. Eugene Sadler-Smith June 15, William C. Triplett, II Regnery Publishing. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, Free Press.

A Critical Introduction to Mao. Karl Duke University Press. Heather Timmons December 30, Johan Nylander February 9, Al Jazeera.

Jamie Florcruz January 7, Retrieved October 25, Retrieved March 29, Internet Archive. September 9, United Press International.

September 18, Retrieved October 8, The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World. Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved April 2, December 23, Ecco Press.

The Washington Post. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Studies in Family Planning. Verhandelingen - Koninklijke Academie voor Geneeskunde van Belgie.

The Guardian. Retrieved January 20, The Economist. August 31, Retrieved May 18, Sky News. China Daily.

December 25, Retrieved January 2, People's Daily. December 27, Mao Routledge Historical Biographies. Routledge , Harvard University Press , Retrieved June 28, Systematic genocide Archived April 11, , at the Wayback Machine.

The Spectator , September 25, Zocalo Public Square. April 22, Retrieved February 8, Matt Schiavenza.

Archived from the original on February 9, January 22, Archived from the original on August 27, International Maoism in the developing world.

Praeger, Cambodia, — Rendezvous with Death. March 13, Archived from the original on June 1, This remark of Mao seems to have elements of truth but it is false.

He confuses the worship of truth with a personality cult, despite there being an essential difference between them.

But this remark played a role in helping to promote the personality cult that gradually arose in the CCP. Fifty years of Chinese Propaganda Posters".

Retrieved November 7, The Trustees of the British Museum, Univ of South Carolina Press. Archived from the original on November 7, October 21, VOA News.

October 23, The Sydney Morning Herald. November 23, Agence France-Presse. July 9, Retrieved July 29, Malcolm Moore May 9, The Daily Telegraph.

Los Angeles Times. August 4, People's Daily in Chinese. Retrieved April 30, Calligraphy and Power in Contemporary Chinese Society. People in Chinese.

September 11, China Quarterly 13 : 60— Global Times. July 4, Retrieved March 15, July 5, China Daily European Weekly.

CCTV News. The Beatles Illustrated Lyrics. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. New York: Black Dog. Becker, Jasper Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine.

Holt Paperbacks. London: Oxford University Press. Mao: The Unknown Story. London: Jonathan Cape. Modern tyrants: the power and prevalence of evil in our age.

NY: Harper. Mao: A Reinterpretation. Chicago: Ivan R. London: Pluto Press. Mao and the Men Against Him. London: Random House.

Mao's Last Revolution. Mao: The Real Story. Mao Tse-Tung. Mao: A Life. Owl Books. Mao Zedong. Penguin Lives. New York: Viking Press.

Lay summary February 6, Mao: A Biography. Valentino, Benjamin A. Cornell University Press. Anita M. Andrew; John A. Rapp Davin, Delia Mao: A Very Short Introduction.

Keith, Schoppa R. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schaik, Sam Tibet: A History. Mao Zedong at Wikipedia's sister projects.

Articles related to Mao Zedong. Paramount leaders of the People's Republic of China. Leaders of the Communist Party of China. Heads of State of the People's Republic of China.

List of presidents of the People's Republic of China Paramount leader. Buddhist Christian Islamic Jewish.

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Matlock Jr. Thomas J. Painter William B. Pickett Ronald E. Additional comments:. To ensure the quality of comments, you need to be connected.

See also: Maul , Maus , Maut , miau. Reverso Team. See details and add a comment. To add entries to your own vocabulary , become a member of Reverso community or login if you are already a member.

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